Home A News Inferior colliculus, Amygdaloid, PCA, Occipital Bone, Thalamus, Etc

Inferior colliculus, Amygdaloid, PCA, Occipital Bone, Thalamus, Etc

Inferior colliculus

The inferior colliculus is a part of the midbrain that has a function as the main hearing center in the human body. Its main role and function is for signal integration, frequency recognition and tone discrimination. The inferior colliculus also processes sensory signals, which are located above or from the superior colliculi.

The inferior colliculus has two lobes, which are to process sound signals from both ears. The two parts are also divided into several sections such as the external cortex, central cortex and lateral cortex. Its function is to integrate several audio signals and filter the sound from vocal activities, chewing and breathing.

Here (in the midbrain) shows a high metabolic rate compared to other parts of the brain. This metabolic activity is the name for chemical reactions in sustaining life.

All brainstem sequences – all neuronal assemblages, or gray matter – are associated with the inferior colliculus. They all attach to the nucleus bilaterally, except to the lateral lemniscus, a bundle of nerve fibers that runs to the thalamus and cortex of the temporal lobe. This temporal lobe is where the integration of cognitive and sensory signals occurs.

Amygdaloid body

The amygdaloid body is also popular in medicine as the amygdaloid nucleus. It is an oval shape of the structure in the human brain and is located in the temporal lobe. It is a small part of the human brain that is related to the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cingulated gyrus, and hippocampus.

Emotional responses, motivation and smell are driven by olfactory and limbic systems, which are mostly located and structured in the amygdaloid body. The amygdaloid body is named based on the almonds, and this depends on the shape of the almond. Furthermore, the word “Amydale” is derived from the Greek for “almond”, while eidos is a Greek word that also means “like”.

Now the use of the amygdala is used to plant the most important parts of the brain. This is the part of the brain that helps with reactions to pleasure and fear. If the work of the amygdaloid body is not normal, there will be various unexpected clinical conditions, including slow development, anxiety, depression and autism.

Posterior Communicating Artery

The blood flow in the brain flows through the central and broad arteries, these are the cerebral arteries. While the network that surrounds it is called the wilis circle. In the brain, oxygenated blood travels through an extensive and central cerebral arterial circle. This network is called the circle of Willis. The posterior communicating artery is responsible for the bulk of the facial circular shape.

when we find a symmetrical face circle. This indicates the presence of two arteries communicating posteriorly, these are the left and the right. The two act as a link for larger blood vessels. Also, connecting the middle and posterior cerebral arteries. Then, they meet at the basilar artery. The basilar artery itself divides into two vertebral arteries.

We know that the cerebral arteries are very important and central in the brain. If there is a problem with this artery then the problem that will occur is very dangerous. Sometimes the damage can be life threatening. The posterior communication artery indicates the strategic location of the aneurysms. This is an area of ​​the artery that is weak and protruding and occasionally bursts also occur.

Most aneurysms occur on the anterior communicating artery. Aneurysm that occurs like that can sometimes cause paralysis of the oculomotor nerve. This is an important nerve whose benefits are very urgent, its existence is to control the eye nerve, eye focus, eye movement, the position of the upper eyelid. If this nerve damage occurs, it can cause paralysis of one of these functions.

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The posterior communication arteries develop slowly during the development process of the fetus in the womb. This is because the vessels of the embryo begin to fuse. This in no way causes birth defects, as is often the case.

Anterior cerebral artery

The job of the Anterior cerebral artery is to supply many of the superior medial parietal lobes and also supply the frontal lobes with fresh blood.

Blood supply is essential for proper functioning of the brain. If blood is insufficiently supplied to vital areas of the brain, it can cause kerius damage to the brain. If the anterior cerebral arteries are blocked or blocked, it can cause paralysis or sensory deficits or stroke may occur.

The anterior cerebral arteries supply blood to the parts responsible for higher-order cognition such as judgment and reasoning. So, if this artery becomes blocked, what happens is cerebral dementia and difficulty speaking. In addition, blockage of these arteries can also cause apraxia gait which causes problems with certain movements such as gait and such as very wide gait and short, flat strides.

The anterior cerebral arteries supply blood to:

  • The septal area: The part of the brain responsible for fear and pleasure
  • The corpus callosum: A thick band of fibers that provides the two halves of the brain
  • The primary somatosensory cortexes for the foot and leg: the part that interprets the sense of touch for the feet and legs
  • The frontal lobes’ motor planning areas: The parts of the brain that affect the assessment and planning areas.
  • The anterior cerebral artery is the circular portion of Willis. These are the interconnected arteries in the brain.

Occipital Bone

In the human body or in the map of the human body above or below the back of the skull, a trapezoidal shaped bone is found and this is called the occipital bone. You could say that this bone is a plate and serves to accommodate the back of the brain. The occipital bone is one of the seven bones that work together to form the skull and it is located behind the five skulls.

This occipital bone then develops over time and gets older and then it joins other skull bones. When you are 18 to 25 years old, the sphenoid bone located in the middle of the skull grows together with the occipital bone. Meanwhile, the parietal bone at the top of the head and the occipital bone will fuse when a person is between 26 and 40 years old.

Also see: The Causes of Waking Up With Headaches


The thalamus is a part that is located deep in the brain or to be precise in the cerebral cortex. The location of the thalamus can be said to be close to the hypothalamus. This includes a symmetrical arrangement located in the brain stem.

Both parts of the thalamus are bulb-shaped, with a length of about 5.5 to 6.0 cm in adults. Of course in children the size becomes smaller.

The thalamus includes the task of receiving almost all sensory information and also from the olfactory system, all of which are then sent to the relevant cortical. The results showed that the thalamus function is not only to convey information but also has another role, namely processing the information. it ensures that the information is processed correctly in the primary cortex area.

The thalamus also has a strong relationship with the cerebral cortex. Together they are involved in the regulation of consciousness. So, someone who has damage to the thalamus, he will be in a permanent coma.